Special Project for A ssistance, Rehabilitation & Strengthening of Handicapped (SPARSH)

शीघ्र पहचान एवं निवारण
शीघ्र पहचान एवं निवारण
Some impairments are preventable and there are various programmes in this area. There are facilities for screening, vaccinations, regular check-ups, nutrition packages and awareness programmes to know more about disability.

नि:शक्‍तता की रोकथाम एवं शीघ्र पहचान के लिए गर्भवती महिलाओं को गर्भावस्‍था में टीकाकरण, पोषण आहार तथा गर्भावस्‍था में टीकाकरण, पोषण आहार तथा गर्भावस्‍था में ब‍रती जाने वाली सावधानियो की जानकारी, प्रसव उपरान्‍त जच्‍चा बच्‍चा की उचित देखभाल तथा आवश्‍यक टीकाकरण की कार्यवाही की जाकर नि:शक्‍तता की रोकथाम हेतु अप्रैल-जुलाई-अक्‍टूबर-जनवरी- के प्रत्‍येक त्रैमास में महिला एवं बाल विकास तथा लोक स्‍वास्‍थ्‍य एवं परिवार कल्‍याण विभाग द्वारा सतत कार्यवाही की जाती है ।

0-6 वर्ष आयु समूह के शिशुओं का जन्‍मजात रोगो के संबंध में शीघ्र पहचान हेतु स्‍वास्‍थ्‍य परीक्षण शिविरों का आयोजन, शासकीय चिकित्‍सालय/स्‍कूल/ग्राम स्‍तर पर सतत संचालित किये जाते हैं ।

नि:शक्‍त व्‍यक्तियों के शारीरिक पुनर्वास हेतु उनकी सुधारात्‍मक शल्‍य चिक्तिसा की जाती है। शिविरों के माध्‍यम से परीक्षित नि:शक्‍त व्‍यक्तियों की शल्‍य चिकित्‍सा विषय विशेषज्ञ शल्‍य चिकित्‍सकों तथा गंभीर रूप से नि:शक्‍त व्‍यक्तियों की शल्‍य चिकित्‍सा राज्‍य के बाहर विषय विशेषज्ञ के माध्‍यम से सम्‍पन्‍न कराई जाती हैं।

राज्‍य शासन द्वारा दीनदयाल अन्‍त्‍योदय उपचार योजना तैयार की गई है, जिसके तहत अनुसूचित जाति/ जनजाति वर्ग के ऐसे परिवार जो गरीबी रेखा के नीचे जीवन यापन कर रहे है, जिसके तहत एक परिवार को एक वित्‍तीय वर्ष में रू. 20,000 की जॉच एव उपचार की सुविधा प्रदान किये जाने का प्रावधान किया गया है।

भारतीय पुनर्वास परिषद द्वारा प्राथमिक स्‍वास्‍थ्‍य केन्‍द्रो के चिकित्‍सा अधिकारियों के राष्‍ट्रीय उन्‍मुखीकरण कार्यक्रम के तहत प्रदेश के 300 चिकित्‍सों को नि:शक्‍तता बाबत् प्रशिक्षित किया जाकर प्राथमिक चिकित्‍सा केन्‍द्रो में पदस्‍थ किया गया है।
Early Dectection of Autism in Babbies
Signs and symptoms of autism in babies and toddlers

If autism is caught in infancy, treatment can take full advantage of the young brain’s remarkable plasticity. Although autism is hard to diagnose before 24 months, symptoms often surface between 12 and 18 months. If signs are detected by 18 months of age, intensive treatment may help to rewire the brain and reverse the symptoms. The earliest signs of autism involve the absence of normal behaviors—not the presence of abnormal ones—so they can be tough to spot. In some cases, the earliest symptoms of autism are even misinterpreted as signs of a “good baby,” since the infant may seem quiet, independent, and undemanding. However, you can catch warning signs early if you know what to look for. Some autistic infants don't respond to cuddling, reach out to be picked up, or look at their mothers when being fed.

Early signs of autism in babies and toddlers
  • Doesn’t make eye contact (e.g. look at you when being fed)
  • Doesn't respond to his or her name or to the sound of a familiar voice
  • Doesn't point or wave goodbye or use other gestures to communicate
  • Doesn’t follow the gesture when you point things out
  • Doesn’t make noises to get your attention
  • Doesn’t initiate or respond to cuddling
  • Doesn’t imitate your movements and facial expressions
  • Doesn’t play with other people or share interest and enjoyment
  • Doesn’t ask for help or make other basic requests
The following delays warrant an immediate evaluation by your child’s pediatrician
  • By 6 months: No big smiles or other warm, joyful expressions
  • By 12 months: Lack of response to name.
  • By 12 months: No babbling or “baby talk.”
  • By 12 months: No back-and-forth gestures, such as pointing, showing, reaching, or waving.
  • By 16 months: No spoken words.
  • By 24 months: No meaningful two-word phrases that don’t involve imitating or repeating.
As children get older, the red flags for autism become more diverse. There are many warning signs and symptoms, but they typically revolve around impaired social skills, speech and language difficulties, non-verbal communication difficulties, and inflexible behavior.

As children get older, the red flags for autism become more diverse. There are many warning signs and symptoms, but they typically revolve around impaired social skills, speech and language difficulties, non-verbal communication difficulties, and inflexible behavior.

Signs and symptoms of social difficulties in autism

Basic social interaction can be difficult for children with autism spectrum disorders. Many kids on the autism spectrum seem to prefer to live in their own world, aloof and detached from others.

  • Appears disinterested or unaware of other people or what’s going on around them.
  • Prefers not to be touched, held, or cuddled
  • Doesn’t play "pretend" games, engage in group games, imitate others, or use toys in creative ways
  • Has trouble understanding or talking about feelings
  • Doesn’t seem to hear when others talk to him or her
  • Doesn't share interests or achievements with others (drawings, toys).
Signs and symptoms of speech and language difficulties in autism

Children with autism spectrum disorders have difficulty with speech and language. Often, they start talking late.

  • Speaks in an abnormal tone of voice, or with an odd rhythm or pitch (e.g. ends every sentence as if asking a question).
  • Responds to a question by repeating it, rather than answering it
  • Refers to themselves in the third person.
  • Uses language incorrectly (grammatical errors, wrong words).
  • Has difficulty communicating needs or desires
  • Doesn’t understand simple directions, statements, or questions.
  • Takes what is said too literally (misses undertones of humor, irony, and sarcasm).
Signs and symptoms of nonverbal communication difficulties in autism

Children with autism spectrum disorders have trouble picking up on subtle nonverbal cues and using body language. This makes the "give-and-take" of social interaction very difficult.

  • Avoids eye contact
  • Doesn’t pick up on other people’s facial expressions, tone of voice, and gestures.
  • Makes very few gestures (such as pointing). May come across as cold or “robot-like.”
  • Reacts unusually to sights, smells, textures, and sounds. May be especially sensitive to loud noises.
  • Abnormal posture, clumsiness, or eccentric ways of moving (e.g. walking exclusively on tiptoe).
Signs and symptoms of inflexibility in autism

Children with autism spectrum disorders are often restricted, inflexible, and even obsessive in their behaviors, activities, and interests.

  • Follows a rigid routine (e.g. insists on taking a specific route to school)
  • Unusual attachments to toys or strange objects such as keys, light switches, or rubber bands.
  • Obsessively lines things up or arranges them in a certain order.
  • Preoccupation with a narrow topic of interest, often involving numbers or symbols (e.g. memorizing and reciting facts about maps, train schedules, or sports statistics).
  • Spends long periods of time arranging toys in specific ways, watching moving objects such as a ceiling fan, or focusing on one specific part of an object such as the wheels of a toy car.
  • Repeats the same actions or movements over and over again, such as flapping hands, rocking, or twirling (known as self-stimulatory behavior, or “stimming”). Some researchers and clinicians believe that these behaviors may soothe children with autism more than stimulate them.
Common self-stimulatory behaviors:
  • Hand flapping
  • Spinning in a circle
  • Finger flicking
  • Head banging
  • Staring at lights
  • Moving fingers in front of the eyes
  • Snapping fingers
  • Tapping ears
  • Scratching
  • Lining up toys
  • Spinning objects
  • Wheel spinning
  • Watching moving objects
  • Flicking light switches on and off
  • Repeating words or noises
Causes of autism

Until recently, most scientists believed that autism is caused mostly by genetic factors. But groundbreaking new research indicates that environmental factors may be just as important in the development of autism—if not more so—than genes. It appears that certain babies are born with a genetic vulnerability to autism that is then triggered by something in the external environment, either while he or she is still in the womb or sometime after birth. It’s important to note that the environment, in this context, means anything outside the body. It’s not limited to things like pollution or toxins in the atmosphere. In fact, one of the most important environments appears to be the prenatal environment.

Prenatal factors that may contribute to autism
  • Taking antidepressants during pregnancy, especially in the first 3 months
  • The age of the mother (children born to older fathers also have a higher risk of autism)
  • Complications at or shortly after birth, including very low birth weight and neonatal anemia
  • Maternal infections during pregnancy
  • Exposure to chemical pollutants, such as metals and pesticides, while pregnant While more research on these prenatal risk factors is needed, if you’re pregnant or trying to conceive, it can’t hurt to take steps now to reduce your baby’s risk of autism.
Early Detection of mentally retardation
  • Continued infant-like behavior
  • Failure to meet the markers of intellectual development
  • Inability to meet educational demands at school
  • Lack of curiosity

Note: Changes to normal behaviors depend on the severity of the condition. Mild retardation may be associated with a lack of curiosity and quiet behavior. Severe mental retardation is associated with infant-like behavior throughout life.

Exams and Tests

An assessment of age-appropriate adaptive behaviors can be made using developmental screening tests. The failure to achieve developmental milestones suggests mental retardation.
The following may be signs of mental retardation:

  • Abnormal Denver developmental screening test
  • Development way below that of peers
  • Intelligence quotient (IQ) score below 70 on a standardized IQ test

The primary goal of treatment is to develop the person's potential to the fullest. Special education and training may begin as early as infancy. This includes social skills to help the person function as normally as possible. It is important for a specialist to evaluate the person for other affective disorders and treat those disorders. Behavioral approaches are important for people with mental retardation.

Outlook (Prognosis)

The outcome depends on:

  • Opportunities
  • Personal motivation
  • Treatment

Many people lead productive lives and function on their own; others need a structured environment to be most successful.

Possible Complications

Complications vary. They may include:

  • Inability to care for self
  • Social isolation
When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your health care provider if:

  • You have any concerns about your child's development
  • Your child has other disorders that need treatment

Genetic: Prenatal screening for genetic defects and genetic counseling for families at risk for known inherited disorders can decrease the risk of inherited mental retardation. Social: Government nutrition programs are available to poor children in the first and most critical years of life. These programs can reduce retardation associated with malnutrition. Early intervention in situations involving abuse and poverty will also help. Toxic: Environmental programs to reduce exposure to lead, mercury, and other toxins will reduce toxin-associated retardation. However, the benefits may take years to become apparent. Increased public awareness of the risks of alcohol and drugs during pregnancy can help reduce the incidence of retardation. Infectious: The prevention of congenital rubella syndrome is probably one of the best examples of a successful program to prevent one form of mental retardation. Constant vigilance, such as limiting exposure to cat litter that can cause toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, helps reduce retardation that results from this infection.